Saturday, August 24, 2019
The Negative Effects of Gluten in Food - Research Paper Example As a result, the gluten sensitive people fall victim to different diseases like obesity, osteoporosis, depression, celiac disease and non-celiac related food allergies. Generally, intestinal biopsy is conducted in people to detect if they are sensitive to gluten. Researches are underway to know more about how gluten affects the health of a person. The best way to avoid diseases for a gluten sensitive patient is to be on a gluten-free diet. Many researchers and physicians have been pondering lately over the considerable rise of diseases like obesity, osteoporosis, depression, celiac disease and non-celiac related food allergies among common people. There is much discussion ongoing in the medical world as to the major cause of such chronic diseases. Gluten is thought to be one factor which is recognized to be causing these diseases in people who are allergic to it. Research suggests the negative effects of gluten in food are obesity, osteoporosis, depression, celiac disease and non-celiac related food allergies. Gluten causes damage to the small intestine and starts giving off symptoms in people who are gluten sensitive. The damaged intestine give way to inadequate absorption of nutrition and the gluten sensitive person suffers from different diseases. Gluten is a form of protein which is generally found in wheat, barley and rye. It can be said that it is found in many types of cereals and various types of bread. However, gluten is not present in all types of food from the grain family. Some grains like rice, millet, corn quinoa and oats do not contain gluten. Hunter (1987) states that Ã¢â¬Å"One of the glutenÃ¢â¬â¢s main protein fractions is gliadin, which is a complex mixtureÃ¢â¬ (pg. 3). Books (2005) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"Gluten is a type of protein found in wheat, barley, rye, triticale and oatsÃ¢â¬ (pg.7). When this protein is metabolized in the body of a certain person, it can at times give a tremendous problem.Ã Ã
Friday, August 23, 2019
Human Geography Oxford City - Essay Example Tourist and other visitors do their shopping at Covered Market; it is one among the several historic centers in Oxford. The tower has been locating in a strategic place in relation to the landscape of the land and the same applies to St. Mary's the Virgin University Church. The architectures of the time were very considerate in designing view points which are currently being used as centers of interest yet they were built hundred of years back. Below is an aerial view of High Street.Oxford City is ever green; the local government has worked hard to conserve the environment by designing nature walks and parks within the ring road. Nature reserves are over 28 in number both within the City and outside. Some of the major parks are South Parks, University Parks, Rock edge reserves, Shotover Reserve. These show how the citizens of the City together with the City governance have worked hard to maintain the natural environment. Any one tempting to tamper with the natural environment faces h igh charges to be a lesson to others. Here is a photo of the green City. In reference to human geography, Oxford city is a city that has considered it in a great way. The design of the City, as well as the activity that takes place within the City, are all admirable, it can critically be used by scholars to define the meaning of human geography because there are a couple of practical example to the subject. This branch of social science is complicated and without examples, it would be difficult for students to comprehend all it details.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Statistics for Managers Class Discussion wk1 - Essay Example Two separate samples were used in the study. The total number of women and girls in the study are 2657 and 1008 respectively (Wiley, 2011). After the analysis, it was established that the association between the occurrence of milk intake of infants aged between 5-12 years and age at the first occurrence of menstruation was weak. There are numerous instances where statistics has been used in business. For instance, Barger King used information gathered from customers to determine their buying trends and preferences. This information was obtained from their credit cards as they are always required to provide their private information. The company successfully managed to gather information from their credit cards. The impact of their statistics is that they managed to improve their sales (Anderson, Sweeney & Williams, 2012). After obtaining relevant information, the company identified areas with many potential customers and their preferences. One of the true values of statistics in business is the operational value. Numerous organizations depend on IT systems to control data, ease payment process and run operations. Unpredicted logjams can take place when IT runs an essential system improvement. It means that the execution will stop and momentarily preventing business from operating efficiently. To solve this problem, organizations use IT systems with statistical procedures to determine the probable cause of the bottlenecks before their operations are interrupted. Other operational advantages of statistics include correct demand estimation and satisfactory inventory
The capability of culture Essay The capability of culture to transcend and influence peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s action and decision making processes remain to be seen since time in memorial. It tries to reach out into many diverse fields of study and tries to exemplify an explanation that these things are influenced by numerous perceptions, action and ideals present during a particular time frame. It is through this that culture can be argued to have a practical value or utility. In understanding this relationship, one must be keen to understand its notion. Since the term refers to the shared beliefs, ideals, and practices of groups of individuals at a given particular time, they continuously try to shape the actions of society as a whole (Klamer, 2002). One important notion that culture has a practical value because it individual actions can be interpreted using the sociological notion. People can create decision making processes that are influenced by the norms and traditions a particular group advocates (Klamer 2002). Similarly, its practical value spreads into different branches as individuals tries to perceive an understanding that though their action may have been independent and individualistic in orientation, it is a collective effort because their decisions are governed by numerous factors that are equally important and needs to be considered (Klamer, 2002). In addition, our own actions can be embodiments and catalyst for the creation of a new trend that can help to either catapult or move the idea of culture forward or backward. Our individual and collective decisions can contribute to the how we address the value of culture in our lives. Due to this, we can either contribute to the redefinition of what we perceive is the value of culture or play a part in formally establishing the link of the term in its utility and overall impact in our lives. Reference Klamer, A. (2002) Value of Culture. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 465-469.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Neoliberalism Ideology Of Privatisation In favour of Globalisation, the Neoliberals suggest that the privatisation and trans-nationalisation of capital is desirable and inevitable from a socio economic development. 1.0 Introduction One of the main outcomes of neo-liberalism in IPE (International political Economy) in economic reforms is Privatisation. To develop my argument, I will look at the arguments of neo-liberalism in favour of privatisation and trans-nationalisation of capital through globalisation. The idea of globalisation has grown to be one of the generally effective in socio economic development as well as raises the global cross boarder in term of social, economic and cultural. To day the terms World economy, world market and globalisation are commonplace, appearing in the sound bites of politicians (Dunn: 188). The debate of the above three vectors relate with economic competition and privatisation try to increase world interdependent and become desirable and inevitable process. Afterwards globalisation is rising attractive a controversial subject whether it can really be important in socio economic development and improve human welfare. A number of scholars in this part come across not so convincingly to provide or even concur that relation between globalisation and privatisation in terms of free competition and free trade (worldwide capital mobility) lead to economic effectiveness, welfare and democracy. To my understanding, globalisation is an important but not adequate circumstance to hasten socio economic. PURPOSE. The foundation of this essay is to essentially examine how aspects of globalisation with privatisation and trans-nationalisation of capital are either important desirable in socio economic improvement. The essay will begin by introducing the concepts of globalisation and will explain Neoliberals perspective on globalisation and its effects on socio economic using different readings, lectures, Journals and my individual observation concerning to the issue. The primary part of this essay will demonstrate the neoliberal arguments in favour of privatisation and trans-nationalisation of capital and its contribution of economic o the process of accelerated economic growth and poverty reduction. Secondly, it will examine some view and criticism and or challenges associated from other perspectives for concerning arguments. Finally, I will draw a conclusion based on review findings. 1.2 CONCEPTS. The idea of globalisation is global change relate with connections of social, cultural, economic and political between actors across the globe. (Robinson: 1999). According to Todaro, globalisation is increasing integrations of national economies into expanding international markets. The above information explains that the process of globalisation try to make a global single set. Indeed Gill accepts that globalisation is part of broad process of restructuring of state and civil society and political economy culture. He emphasizes that It is ideology largely consistent with the world view and political priorities of large- scale internationally mobile forms of capital. Mobility of resources is very crucial in development, investment and services for increasing internationally interconnection and commonly world economy. The OECD1 handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators explained that the term globalisation has been widely used to describe the increasing internationalisation of fin ancial market and of markets for goods and services. In this regards the integrations of capital labour and financial services is very important for economic inter-reliance. The Concept of neo-liberalism is a set of economic policies that have become widespread during the last two decade. Martinez 1996. Indeed (Cerny, 2008), explained that, during 1980s neo-liberalism was related with International Relation while 1990s focus on economic and liberalisation in International Political Economy. Thorsen agrees that is used to describe a range of policies and an economic philosophy that stress international free trade, economic liberalism or capitalism and the promotion of such through deregulation privatisation and liberalisation of nation economies. He highlights that, the term neo liberalism also used to imply that is a new form of economic liberalism more commonly known as capitalism but on global scale. In this logic the neoliberals relate with open of trans-nationalisation of capital and liberation of enterprises and state linking the appearance of market civilisation. Mean while, (Gill1995) agrees that neoliberal macroeconomic policies, aligned to the ideology of the competition state, hence the competition through the privatisation is more essential and enhance global interconnection on socio economic growth. According to sheikh (2004) neoliberals dominants modern globalisation. Its practices are justified by asset of theoretical claim rooted in standard economic theory. Market is represented as optimal and self regulating social structure. It is claimed that if market must be allowed to function with out restraint. Therefore, neoliberals believe that the role of government is to provide public service and markets will adjustment naturally. Neo-liberalism perspective with globalisation reflects on international competitiveness, the policy might engage in recreation of a role in improving international economy. Hirst (2009) at el accepts that, to neo-liberalism international competitiveness as the characteristic modality of international economic governance. It involves political compromise including diplomatic bargaining between countries to establish compromises on trade policy as exemplified by the GATT mechanism. A long with this for neo-liberalism emphasis on the political bargaining is very significant the exercise of international market entrance. 2. Privatisation and Trans-nationalisation of Capital. Before the description and explanation of the neo-liberalism arguments in favour of privatisation. I will describe in short the meaning of privatisation In generally. According to Todaro 2009 the privatisation of state owned enterprises in the production and financial sectors, hinges on orthodox hypothesis that private ownership brings greater efficiency and more rapid growth In addition he emphasise that privatisation improves efficiency, increase outputs and lower costs to reduce public internal and external debt, and promotes individuals initiatives while rewarding entrepreneurship. In this regards states by implementing this policy leads to improve growth and increase in the rational choice for consumer and socio economic level. Martinez (1996) agrees that privatisation sell state-owned enterprises, goods and services to private investors. This includes banks, key industries, railroads, toll highways, electricity, schools, hospitals and even fresh water. Although usually done in the name of greater efficiency, which is often needed, privatization has mainly had the effect of concentrating wealth even more in a few hands and making the public pay even more for its needs. In general privatisation is very crucial on world economy yet it is increasingly becoming a debated issue whether it can improve the economy or make it is worse situation especially in developing Countries. Related with trans-nationalisation of capital is a kind of recent capitalism connected with hegemonic tool for analysis of transitional economy. Capital transnationalisation can be transferred through different type in terms of and goods and service capital, financial capital, and productive capital. Bina (1991) agrees that there are three ways of trans-nationalisation in world economy (i) Concentration and centralisation of capital both in manufacturing (industrial capital) and financial capital. (ii) The formation of finance capital and further development of credits system for expanded reproduction and the consequent internationalisation of all circuits of capital and globalisation and production through the medium of transnational cooperation (TNCs). However economic labour movement and financial flow become considerable society in the age of globalisation. Labour is directly related to the reason of advanced capitalism. This requires an inspection of requirements of the politica l economy of today trans-nationalisation. Cerny 2008 argue that for neo-liberalism contemporary politics entails both a process of choosing between version of neo-liberalism, and the attempt to innovate creativity within the new neoliberal playing field including open trade capital flows embedded financial orthodoxy, the regulatory state, privatisation and hybrid forms of governance are the bottom line of neo-liberalism. In theory, it offers prediction of amendment of political institutions increase of economic globalisation. The argument of neo-liberalism paradigm base on free market and privatisation has encouraging effects in social impartiality. Moreover they believe in freedom of movement for capital commodities, it advocates the opportunity of economies and competition in the world market in situation of complete freedom. Hirst agrees that economic performance measures through competitiveness. Idea of competitiveness relate with comparative advantages that is different countries lead each country will capable to acquire other product at al lower resources cost less hours. Moreover, Makwana (2006) agrees that neoliberals claims that privatized services are more capable than those run by state. They consider that market competition and collaborate effectiveness can drive prices drive prices down for consumers. Furthermore, the eventual goal of neoliberal economic globalisation to eliminate of all barriers to trade and the privatisation of all accessible resources and service. In addition, Cerny 2008. state that, neo-liberalism focus on relatively dogmatic, enforced laissez-faire doctrine, it involves first of all an acceptance that we live in multilevel, more open and market like globalisation world in which informal and negotiated policy process prevails for neoliberals open market and globalisation is very significant for neoliberal market civilisation (Gill 1995) which is linking social well being on broad around the world economy system. Another explanation from (Cerny: 2008) reiterates that, neoliberals public policies, whether at national, regional or international level do not merely constrains but also bring opportunities. In theory, through Structural Adjustment policies allows poor to possess and be accountable for recovering their lives changes themselves relatively than the system. As I mentioned earlier that, transformation of capital may occur in term of manufacturing and financial aspects there is empirical evidence that some of countries benefited with privatisation policy. (Calva: 2003) accepts that, in Costa Rica four company privatise and reported that increasing 9 percentages of GDP in 1998.this means that shares of GDP reduce deficit in GDP. Another evidence which (Calva 2003) provided that increase of production in industrial sector, he highlighted that Russian and Mexico is among of countries achieved in by privatisation. The above example provided, demonstrate for neoliberals ideology of privatisation had positive aspects in economic sector. Different with neoliberals perspectives, realist theories highlighted that competitiveness and privatisation is not a solution for social well being on broad around the world. Bayliss (2005) agreed that, in developing countries, privatisation, in common with the wider neo-liberal policy agenda, has failed to meet expectations. Privatisation efforts have been undermined by various factors, including weak political commitment, poor investor supply response and institutional challenges. He emphasis that since the late 1990s, the language of privatisation has softened (as, for example, private sector participation has replaced privatisation). In additional to that, realism scholars argues that globalisation has not succeeded to promote market economy in world market. It gears an inequality of market between North and South. Stiglitz agrees there is disproportionate share of benefits, at the expense of the developing worlds. Therefore a consequence of this situation consequence was some poorest countries in the world turn into worse off. Private investment sector is useful in socio economic especially for countries that lacks of capital, including piece of equipments and expertise. Stiglitz (2006:) accepts that, for privatisation policy of world economy to meet the demand for their skill labour increase, and wages of unskilled labour become higher he emphasized that if labour moves from a country where productivity and wages are low to one where they are high, the increase in out put can be enormous and worlds economy grows. The Marxist perspectives, argues that privatisation is related with capital accumulation. Dunn 2006 agrees that private capitalist accumulate capital by making investment decisions within logic of profit maximization. He emphasizes that privatisation in capitalist counties dont directly interfere in investments decisions or in the market, but rather provide legitimation and order, using its power primary to guarantee external defense and internal peace consistence with the institutions of private property, therefore they emphasizes that globalisation serves an interest maximisation of profit inter of capital trans-nationalisation and intercontinental trade other than ideology. For Marxist discipline, globalisation relates with expansion of capital accumulation and should be profitable the working class Hossein (2005) agrees that for many Marxist in recent decades, capitalism is key its nature a globally expanding system geared to accumulation on a world scale. To some extent Marxist believe that ideology of competition between capitalist countries facilitate currently instability for the world capitalist economy. 3.0: Critics of Globalisation, Privatisation and trans-nationalisation. This paper has assessed the privatisation and trans-nationalisation idea of neoliberals facilitate socio economic world. Policy of privatisation to large extent the development helps to increase job creation, trade competition and rational choice for consumer. Yet it features some challenges. As I illustrated in the beginning, trans-nationalisation of capital is kind of hegemonic capitalist system, this is more appropriate part of global political economy in capitalist production and finance. This reflects the rising domination of transnational cooperation (TNC) of having hegemonic actors (North part) in world economy. Roboson 2004 agrees that, there is evidence that a transnational class is gaining hegemony over local- and national-based capitalists including the spread of TNCs, increase in foreign direct investment (FDI), cross border mergers and acquisitions, transnational interlocked directorships, and strategic alliances. This situation changes stability of classes forces that has completed likely that attack on unions. For neoliberals structural Adjustments policies is appropriate and its implementation but in reality the application of Shock therapy implementation of SAP in Africa and other areas resulted in increase in economic shock and other abjection results Protozos 2004 agreed that over 15 years of IMF / World Bank management of Tanzanias economy saw its per capital GDP drop from $ 309 to $ 210 and rate of abject poverty jumped to 51 percent of the population. Moreover the Implementation of SAP are forced as condition for loans, hence the repayments of loans affects budget of the developing countries. In addition Protozons argue that SAP structural Adjustment Programme are imposed renegotiating debts, and on condition that the receipts country accepts privatisation, capital market liberalisation, market based pricing and reduction in subsidies for public services such as water, food and utilities. This has therefore resulted was disintegration of their economies and hence catastrophic for developing countries. Competiveness of trade is myth to increase sustainable of true competitiveness. Unfortunately, this major reason that leads to divergences and differences between North and South. Hirst 2009 agrees that, the emerging market economies might threaten the competitive position of the traditional developed countries of the North, which in countries is threatened by cheap goods and labour, the growth of South cheap goods and labour which one of aspects hinder trade competition. Indeed Curtis 2005 argues that in Pakistan increasing foreign competition in fisheries a sector is edging 300,000 local fisher folk out of market. This evaluate that private company distorted local market since local companies does not compete due to different obstacles. Private investment sector was usual to consequence in job formation. In reality restructuring has been accompanied with retrenchments. Stiglitz (2006) accepts that, privatisation policy failed to meet commitments to world economy to many development countries around the world when they liberalized so fast that the private sector did not have time to respond and create new jobs, or when interest rates were so high that the private sector could not affords to make the investments necessary to create new jobs. There fore unemployment rate increases in economic system. 4. Conclusion. In conclusion this paper argues on that globalisation and privatisation and trans-nationalisation in world economy. To a great degree, privatisation helps to facilitate and improves in different sectors management job opportunities socio and economic development growth in North side rather then South side. Above of the mentioned challenges / critics and other factors may cause that implementation of globalisation and tarns-nationalisation and privatisation be uneven. Moreover, the concept of globalisation exhibits affirmative forms of thought, including economic effectiveness, wellbeing and democracy. For neo-liberalism ideology of privatisation is away cut off hegemonic power between North and South which exist, yet the process seem failed to meet its commitments. Furthermore, the elementary strategy of neoliberal is focusing on rising freedom both political and economic aspects. The practice and performance of neoliberal ideology has been reliable every where in the world. Privatisation in developing countries is universal with the wide neoliberals strategy programme has failed to meet expectation. (Curtis 2005) accepts that, In South Africa, water privatisation has meant that half of million people were cut off non payment of their water bills during of their water bills during a three month period in 2001 out break of cholera has been also been reported as families resort to drawing water pollution rivers. In this regards, the policy move emerged in response to apparent failures in the public sector particular in Sub Sahara Africa. Finally, I have drawn the conclusion, why neoliberal thought of globalisation through free trade policy not working? And what can be done in order to make globalisation run for more people. In my view damaged by different factors, together with weak political obligation, underprivileged investor supply response and institutional challenges. However there is tendency of TNCs exercise several strategies to reduce their declared income in developing country including transfer pricing and be liable to move most of declared profits elsewhere of the host country. On top on that, developing countries should provide sufficient data for foreign investors; hence it helps more promoted achievement. In developing countries, privatisation can place substantial demands on an already stretched and destabilized public sector, both in terms of functioning and rule of the privatised enterprises. Therefore manufacturing sector productivity is smaller and low-income economies due, in part, to an amalgamation of hi-tech dependence What do poor countries require to perform to reap the utmost benefit from globalisation? For my view that, developed countries should to reduce boundaries against import of African products. Public Sectors including provision of water, education and health might be clearly excluded from privatisation. Poor countries have to have right of entry to substantial special action to look after their frail economies from foreign competition. Developed countries should implements the Article 66 of TRIPS2 agreement, which requires developed countries to make available incentives encouraging transfer of technology. In addition to that, industrial countries should implement well article 22, 23, and 24 Howard 2009 agrees that, article 22,23,24 allow government to protect good name of product from certain regions in their countries, this helps developing countries to have a property of use of trade mark and geographical protection for produce a specific commodities. Last but not least a major aspect for implementation of privatisation is political stability. Ajay 2001 argue that, Good governance and accountability and trustworthy and independency of national institutions is very crucial condition for growth. To summarise, state should play its role well, where market failure and international developments agencies try to equalized and avoided to implements globalisation and other policies by dominants of unilaterally or us hegemony.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Organisational behaviour for Woolworths Introduction Woolworths Woolworths was a high-street retail chain, which at its height operated more than 800 stores nationwide, and employed more than 30,000 staff. In late 2008, Woolworths entered administration, and subsequently closed in 2009. Each branch employed a mixture of full time and part time employees, and there was a distinct hierarchy apparent. At the top of the hierarchy was the head of branch responsible for the overall performance of the store. Then there were senior managers usually two present each day, they were responsible for the management of the general day to day operations of the branch. This included stock control, staff rotas, and the cashing of money at the end of the day. Full -time employees were next, and they tended to be middle aged, who worked week days. They were regularly delegated tasks by the management. At the bottom of the hierarchy were the part -time employees. They were often students, who worked during the evenings when the store was closed and at the weekends when the shop was busier. They were given little responsibility, as the majority of them were apathetic to the performance of the organisation. They were mainly there for financial reasons, rather than to pursue a career in retail. As the majority were students, the staff turnover was very high and this resulted in the management giving these employees few opportunities. This hierarchy was on the whole effective, as part time employees were happy to follow orders from full time employees and senior managers. Management at Woolworths were somewhat removed from their staff. Because of the informal hierarchical system in place, head of branch had little communication with part time employees. This meant that the management didnt know many of their staff on a personal level, which in turn resulted in a poor application of motivational methods. This report will look at the effects that management has on employee motivation at a particular branch of Woolworths. It will assess the different techniques used by the organisation as a whole, and by the branch managers, to motivate the employees. This report will also make a number of recommendations for ways in which management can motivate these employees more effectively in Woolworths future enterprises. HR/Organisational Behaviour Motivation In times of recession, the need to motivate staff is probably as strong as ever. As many employers wont have a large budget for recruiting and training staff, they will want to hang on to their most talented and skilled workers to ensure their business survives the recession and remains competitive in the upturn (Sullivan, 2009). Employees in any organisation need something to keep them working to the best of their ability. In most cases employees are driven by money. However, sometimes just a salary is not enough to stay at an organisation. An employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization. If an organisation fails to motivate its staff effectively, then productivity and quality of work will deteriorate. Keeping someone working to the best of their ability is the ultimate goal of employee motivation. There are many methods to help keep employees motivated, this report will look at a number of theories involving the effect that management has on employee motivation, and will aim to apply these to a branch of Woolworths. Motivating staff is one of the most important responsibilities for a leader in an organisation; however it is also one of the most difficult. Doing so goes a long way toward ensuring a professionally healthy and productive work environment (Staren, 2009). Because there were a large number of part-time student employees working at the branch of Woolworths, managements biggest challenge was to keep these particular staff motivated. It is common for younger employees to see this kind of job as simply a means to make money. As they have few financial responsibilities, they are less likely to feel the need to impress management and work to the best of their ability to keep their job. It is of the opinion that a low quality of service was a key factor in the ultimate failure of Woolworths. Because many staff were not motivated by their work, there was a knock-on effect on the quality of work carried out. This resulted in a poor customer feedback and most importantly a poor reputation. The emphasis was therefore on the management to try and change this impression. The following is a literature review of motivational theory. It will begin by looking at the factors of an employees job that most motivate them, followed by an in depth analysis of the effect of management on motivation. Literature Review What motivates an employee? In the early part of the 20th Century, employees were considered just another input in the production of goods and services. When Henry Ford first developed his assembly line for the Model-T, workers were treated as though they were another machine in the process, their skills reduced to a single task out of the 84 steps Ford had divided Model T production into. However this view of thinking changed after the publication of the Hawthorne Studies. Professor Elton Mayo examined the impact of work conditions in employee productivity, and following experiments conducted over six years, came to the conclusion that employees are motivated not only by money, and that employee behaviour is related to other behaviour. Studies in this area showed that Ã¢â¬Å"interesting workÃ¢â¬ has been the most important motivational factor. It is maintained by Hackman (1975) that interesting and challenging work inspires people to perform better than required, exerting additional effort in order to experience a sense of fulfilling their potential and accomplishing worthwhile ends. Creating interesting work might be a challenge for organisations however. According to Kovach (1989), its hard to make all work in an organisation interesting, as its on a personal level, and what may be interesting to one person may not be interesting to another. Situation plays an important role and motivation varies over time and situation as well. Kovachs study shows that younger workers with low incomes in non-supervisory positions were most concerned with money, job security and prospects of promotion while older workers with higher incomes and higher organisational positions were motivated more by the work and its quality. There have been many surveys conducted on the factors for employee motivation. The first of which was by the Labour Relations Institute of New York in 1946, on industrial employees. Appreciation of work done was most important motivating factor in the first survey, as well as in 1997. But in the last decade, good wages became the most common factor. Demographics, such as income and location, should be considered when analysing these attitudes, according to Wiley (1977). One of the key factors of a motivated workforce is the leadership they are given. Good management of staff can ensure an organisations employees work to the best of their ability. The role of leadership when motivating staff McGregor (1960) maintained that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory X, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. With theory X, a manager has little respect for their employees skills and considers that they need to be closely supervised and that comprehensive systems of controls developed. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. They assume that the average person dislikes work and will avoid it they can, therefore employees must be forced towards organisational objectives, with the threat of punishment. They also assume that employees prefer to be directed, to avoid responsibility and wants security above all else. Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision, and a punitive atmosphere. With theory Y, management believes employees to be ambitious, self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. Theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. An additional theory, Theory Z, was developed by William Ouchi, in his book 1981 Theory Z: How American management can Meet the Japanese Challenge. It promotes a combination of theory Y and modern Japanese management, which places a large amount of freedom and trust with workers, and assumes that workers have a strong loyalty and interest in team-working and the organisation. McGregors work can be related to McClellands achievement model. Due to their high task focus, achievement-motivated people have a tendency towards X-Theory style; however an nAch manager can be trained to see the value of employing Theory Y style. NPow managers are almost definitely Theory X and nAffil are typically Theory Y and if not can relatively easily be trained to be so. McGregors work was based on Maslows hierarchy of needs. This theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation. The original Hierarchy of Needs model was developed between 1943 and 1954, and first widely published in Motivation and Personality in 1954. It concerned the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential (self-actualization). He proposed that each of us is motivated by needs, and that these most basic needs are inborn. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself. Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development. Conversely, if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are swept away, we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of o ur higher order needs. McGregor suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivate employees. As management theorists became familiar with Maslows work, they soon realized the possibility of connecting higher level needs to worker motivation. If organizational goals and individual needs could be integrated so that people would acquire self-esteem and, ultimately, self-actualization through work, then motivation would be self-sustaining. Today, his Theory Y principle influences the design of personnel policies, affects the way companies conduct performance reviews, and shapes the idea of pay for performance. David McClelland proposed that an individuals specific needs are developed over time and are fashioned by ones life experiences. The majority of these needs can be classed as either achievement (nAch seek to excel), affiliation (nAff need harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by others), or power (nPow seek to benefit either themselves or the organisation). An employees motivation and effectiveness in certain job functions are influenced by these needs. Management should seek to understand their employees needs in order to achieve maximum motivation. The importance of each of these needs will vary from one person to another. If management can determine the importance of each of these needs to an individual, it will help them decide how to influence that individual. By using these theories to address an individual employees needs, management could increase motivation by utilising Management by objectives (MBO). MBO is a systematic and organized approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available resources. It was first outlined by Peter Drucker in 1954 in his book The Practice of Management. It aims to increase organizational performance by aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout the organization. Ideally, employees get strong input to identify their objectives, time lines for completion, etc. MBO includes ongoing tracking and feedback in the process to reach objectives. With MBO, managers focus on the result, not the activity. They delegate tasks by negotiating a contract of goals with their subordinates without dictating a detailed roadmap for implementation. Management by Objectives (MBO) is about setting objectives and then breaking these down into more specific goals or key results. Application of OB theory to its organisational practice This review of management practise has a number of implications for Woolworths management. Recognising the needs of individuals within the workforce can help management develop their methods and will enable them to get the best out of each individual employee. By using Maslows Hierarchy of needs, management might be able to profile their full time and part time employees effectively. By applying McClellands principle at the beginning of an employees career, management can get a deeper understanding of the profile of their employees. In the past, it could be assumed that all part-time staff have the same desires and needs from their job. It is fair to assume that they are all there for financial reasons only. However by applying this theory, it might be found that there are employees who wish to pursue the job and turn it into a career. They would fit into the nAch group of McClellands theory. Recognising this will give the management the opportunity to develop this employee and to hand them more responsibility in their work. This will motivate the employees which in turn will benefit the organisation. The majority of the part time workforce would fit into the nAff character, as they seek to have harmonious experiences and would seek to make their job as straightforward as possible by forming friendly relationships. It is the managements responsibility to ensure that the working environment is suitable for these employees, as they make up the majority. It is vital that the management recognises McGregors X and Y theory. At the branch of Woolworths in question, there were a number of managers who would fit the theory X character. In this particular field, where one of the key roles of management is communicating with their staff, this had a very negative effect. Although it would be fair for a manager to assume that many of their part time staff are apathetic to the organisations success, this is not the case. By not offering them any responsibility would not be a pragmatic decision, as it would simply deter staff further from reaching their potential ability at work. A theory Y character on the other hand may not be suitable for this type of work force as well. As accepted in this report, the majority of the part time workforce is there simply for financial reasons. Giving them too much responsibility may result in a lack of effectiveness, as they feel they can get away with doing a lacklustre job without being held responsible. Instead a mixture of theories X and Y might be the most suitable to manage a retail workforce, where the management might delegate responsibility to employees and give them some independence at work, whilst still keeping a close eye on their progress. The MBO style is appropriate for knowledge-based enterprises when your workforce are competent. It is appropriate in situations where you wish to build employees management and self-leadership skills and tap their creativity, tacit knowledge and initiative. Therefore it may not be suitable for the majority of employees at Woolworths. However the head of branch should have used this style to set regular objectives for their senior managers. This would have a positive effect on all employees in the hierarchy, as the senior managers will become more motivated and will in turn motivate the staff more effectively. Conclusion Lessons for management Successful work environments are characterized by open communication at all levels. The effective manager realizes that identifying positive motivators requires knowing his staff on an individual basis. He recognizes that what motivates one member, even in the same role, may not be the same for another (Staren, 2009). Woolworths management should have considered indentifying each of their employees needs and motivating factors early on in their role and ensured that they treated their workforce as individuals. Woolworths management should take advantage of incentive based motivational methods in which performance is guided by objectives. By meeting regularly with staff to determine mutually agreed upon goals and objectives, this could have considerable motivational effects on its workforce. The managers should have ensured that the staff members had appropriate authority or are otherwise empowered to proceed as they deem necessary to accomplish their jobs. Giving staff more responsibility will only have a positive effect on their motivation. The key is understanding the type of responsibility they desire.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Walls are built up all over the world. They have many purposes and uses. The most common use of a wall is to divide a region. One of these famous walls is the Berlin Wall, which was constructed in 1961. This Wall was erected to keep East Berlin out of West Berlin, and even America had its own wall well before this one. There were a few major differences though. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s wall, in contrast, was not a physical one that kept capitalism from communism. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s wall was of a psychological variety, and it spread across most of the nation. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s wall was more of a curtain in the fact that one could easily pull it aside to see what behind it, but if one didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. This curtain was what separated whites and blacks in America, and one famous writer, James Baldwin, felt there was a need to bring it down. He felt that one should bring it down while controlling his or her emotions caused by the division. One of the best places to see the bringing down of the curtain and the effects that it had on the nation is where the curtain was its strongest, in Birmingham, Alabama. Forty years ago there was an explosion of bombings in Alabama. These attacks on communities seemed endless, as endless the hate that had been brewing in Alabama itself. These attacks seemed to be concentrated in the city of Birmingham, which is the setting for a place where a very tragic event will happen, one that brought the attention of the world to the evil curtain within Birmingham. In the church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church four little girls were killed in the blast on September 15th, 1963. Although this event started unrest and upheaval, by in the end it will have sparked the destruction of the curtain. To understand the why these youths were killed in Alabama, one must come to understand the events that led up to their death. Birmingham, Alabama was a very unstable area during the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, and this instability stemmed from pure racial hatred brewing within this city. Bombings started as early as the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s and gave a section of Birmingham the nickname dynamite alley. The resulting civil unrest caused a man to step forward to stop it, a man by the name of Fred Shuttlesworth. Mr. Shuttlesworth was a part of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and he organized many events and demonstrations but the only result that came from them was more violence.